Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Symptoms, Treatment and Self-Help for PTSD
After a traumatic experience, it's normal to feel frightened, sad, anxious, and disconnected. But if
the upset doesn't fade and you feel stuck with a constant sense of danger and painful memories,
you may be suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It can seem like you'll never get
over what happened or feel normal again. But by seeking treatment, reaching out for support, and
developing new coping skills, you can overcome PTSD and move on with your life.
What is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can develop following a traumatic event that threatens your
safety or makes you feel helpless.
Most people associate PTSD with battle-scarred soldiers—and military combat is the most common
cause in men—but any overwhelming life experience can trigger PTSD, especially if the event feels
unpredictable and uncontrollable.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can affect those who personally experience the catastrophe,
those who witness it, and those who pick up the pieces afterwards, including emergency workers
and law enforcement officers. It can even occur in the friends or family members of those who went
through the actual trauma.
PTSD develops differently from person to person. While the symptoms of PTSD most commonly
develop in the hours or days following the traumatic event, it can sometimes take weeks, months,
or even years before they appear.
Traumatic events that can lead to PTSD include:
Car or plane crashes
Sudden death of a loved one
Sexual or physical abuse
Or any shattering event that leaves you stuck and feeling helpless and hopeless
The difference between PTSD and a normal response to trauma
The traumatic events that lead to post-traumatic stress disorder are usually so overwhelming and
frightening that they would upset anyone. Following a traumatic event , almost everyone experiences
at least some of the symptoms of PTSD. When your sense of safety and trust are shattered, it’s
normal to feel crazy, disconnected, or numb. It’s very common to have bad dreams, feel fearful,
and find it difficult to stop thinking about what happened. These are normal reactions to abnormal
For most people, however, these symptoms are short-lived. They may last for several days or even
weeks, but they gradually lift. But if you have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the symptoms
don’t decrease. You don’t feel a little better each day. In fact, you may start to feel worse.
A normal response to trauma becomes PTSD when you become stuck
After a traumatic experience, the mind and the body are in shock. But as you make sense of
what happened and process your emotions, you come out of it. With post-traumatic stress
disorder (PTSD), however, you remain in psychological shock. Your memory of what happened
and your feelings about it are disconnected. In order to move on, it’s important to face and feel
your memories and emotions.
Signs and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
The symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can arise suddenly, gradually, or come and
go over time. Sometimes symptoms appear seemingly out of the blue. At other times, they are
triggered by something that reminds you of the original traumatic event, such as a noise, an image,
certain words, or a smell.
While everyone experiences PTSD differently, there are three main types of symptoms:
1. Re-experiencing the traumatic event
2. Avoiding reminders of the trauma
3. Increased anxiety and emotional arousal
Symptoms of PTSD: Re-experiencing the traumatic event
Intrusive, upsetting memories of the event
Flashbacks (acting or feeling like the event is happening again)
Nightmares (either of the event or of other frightening things)
Feelings of intense distress when reminded of the trauma
Intense physical reactions to reminders of the event (e.g. pounding heart, rapid breathing, nausea,
muscle tension, sweating)
Symptoms of PTSD: Avoidance and numbing
Avoiding activities, places, thoughts, or feelings that remind you of the trauma
Inability to remember important aspects of the trauma
Loss of interest in activities and life in general
Feeling detached from others and emotionally numb
Sense of a limited future (you don’t expect to live a normal life span, get married, have a career)
Symptoms of PTSD: Increased anxiety and emotional arousal
Difficulty falling or staying asleep
Irritability or outbursts of anger
Hypervigilance (on constant “red alert”)
Feeling jumpy and easily startled
Other common symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Anger and irritability
Guilt, shame, or self-blame
Feelings of mistrust and betrayal
Depression and hopelessness
Suicidal thoughts and feelings
Feeling alienated and alone
Physical aches and pains
Symptoms of PTSD in children and adolescents
In children—especially those who are very young—the symptoms of PTSD can be different than the
symptoms in adults. Symptoms in children include:
Fear of being separated from parent
Losing previously-acquired skills (such as toilet training)
Sleep problems and nightmares without recognizable content
Somber, compulsive play in which themes or aspects of the trauma are repeated
New phobias and anxieties that seem unrelated to the trauma (such as a fear of monsters)
Acting out the trauma through play, stories, or drawings
Aches and pains with no apparent cause
Irritability and aggression
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) causes and risk factors
While it’s impossible to predict who will develop PTSD in response to trauma, there are certain risk
factors that increase your vulnerability.
Many risk factors revolve around the nature of the traumatic event itself. Traumatic events are more
likely to cause PTSD when they involve a severe threat to your life or personal safety: the more
extreme and prolonged the threat, the greater the risk of developing PTSD in response. Intentional,
human-inflicted harm—such as rape, assault, and torture— also tends to be more traumatic than
“acts of God” or more impersonal accidents and disasters. The extent to which the traumatic event
was unexpected, uncontrollable, and inescapable also plays a role.
Other risk factors for PTSD include:
Previous traumatic experiences , especially in
Family history of PTSD or depression
History of physical or sexual abuse
History of substance abuse
History of depression , anxiety, or another
High level of stress in everyday life
Lack of support after the trauma
Lack of coping skills
Getting help for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
If you suspect that you or a loved one has post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it’s important to
seek help right away. The sooner PTSD is confronted, the easier it is to overcome. If you’re
reluctant to seek help, keep in mind that PTSD is not a sign of weakness, and the only way to
overcome it is to confront what happened to you and learn to accept it as a part of your past. This
process is much easier with the guidance and support of an experienced therapist or doctor.
It’s only natural to want to avoid painful memories and feelings. But if you try to numb yourself and
push your memories away, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will only get worse. You can’t
escape your emotions completely—they emerge under stress or whenever you let down your guard
—and trying to do so is exhausting. The avoidance will ultimately harm your relationships, your
ability to function, and the quality of your life.
Why Should I Seek Help for PTSD?
Early treatment is better. Symptoms of PTSD may get worse. Dealing with them now might
help stop them from getting worse in the future. Finding out more about what treatments
work, where to look for help, and what kind of questions to ask can make it easier to get
help and lead to better outcomes.
PTSD symptoms can change family life. PTSD symptoms can get in the way of your family
life. You may find that you pull away from loved ones, are not able to get along with people,
or that you are angry or even violent. Getting help for your PTSD can help improve your
PTSD can be related to other health problems. PTSD symptoms can make physical health
problems worse. For example, studies have shown a relationship between PTSD and heart
trouble. By getting help for your PTSD you could also improve your physical health.
Source: National Center for PTSD
Treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Treatment for PTSD relieves symptoms by helping you deal with the trauma you’ve experienced.
Rather than avoiding the trauma and any reminder of it, treatment will encourage you to recall and
process the emotions and sensations you felt during the original event. In addition to offering an
outlet for emotions you’ve been bottling up, treatment for PTSD will also help restore your sense of
control and reduce the powerful hold the memory of the trauma has on your life.
In treatment for PTSD, you’ll:
Explore your thoughts and feelings about the trauma
Work through feelings of guilt, self-blame, and mistrust
Learn how to cope with and control intrusive memories
Address problems PTSD has caused in your life and relationships
Types of treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD and trauma
involves carefully and gradually “exposing” yourself to thoughts, feelings, and situations that
remind you of the trauma. Therapy also involves identifying upsetting thoughts about the
traumatic event–particularly thoughts that are distorted and irrational—and replacing them with
more balanced picture.
Family therapy. Since PTSD affects both you and those close to you, family therapy can be
especially productive. Family therapy can help your loved ones understand what you’re going
through. It can also help everyone in the family communicate better and work through relationship
problems caused by PTSD symptoms.
Medication is sometimes prescribed to people with PTSD to relieve secondary symptoms of
depression or anxiety. Antidepressants such as Prozac and Zoloft are the medications most
commonly used for PTSD. While antidepressants may help you feel less sad, worried, or on edge,
they do not treat the causes of PTSD.
EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) incorporates elements of cognitive-
behavioral therapy with eye movements or other forms of rhythmic, left-right stimulation, such as
hand taps or sounds. Eye movements and other bilateral forms of stimulation are thought to work
by “unfreezing” the brain’s information processing system, which is interrupted in times of
Finding a therapist for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
When looking for a therapist for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), seek out mental health
professionals who specialize in the treatment of trauma and PTSD. You can start by asking your
doctor if he or she can provide a referral to therapists with experience treating trauma. You may
also want to ask other trauma survivors for recommendations, or call a local mental health clinic,
psychiatric hospital, or counseling center.
Beyond credentials and experience, it’s important to find a PTSD therapist who makes you feel
comfortable and safe, so there is no additional fear or anxiety about the treatment itself. Trust your
gut; if a therapist doesn’t feel right, look for someone else. For therapy to work, you need to feel
respected and understood. To find a trauma therapist, see the Resources and References section
Help for veterans with PTSD
If you’re a veteran suffering from PTSD, combat stress, or trauma, there are steps you can take to
begin the recovery process and deal with your symptoms. To learn more, see PTSD in Military
Self-help treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Recovery from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a gradual, ongoing process. Healing
doesn’t happen overnight, nor do the memories of the trauma ever disappear completely. This can
make life seem difficult at times. But there are many things you can do to cope with residual
symptoms and reduce your anxiety and fear.
PTSD self-help tip 1: Reach out to others for support
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can make you feel disconnected from others. You may be
tempted to withdraw from social activities and your loved ones. But it’s important to stay
connected to life and the people who care about you. Support from other people is vital to your
recovery from PTSD, so ask your close friends and family members for their help during this tough
Also consider joining a support group for survivors of the same type of trauma you experienced.
Support groups for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can help you feel less isolated and alone.
They also provide invaluable information on how to cope with symptoms and work towards
recovery. If you can’t find a support group in your area, look for an online group.
PTSD self-help tip 2: Avoid alcohol and drugs
When you’re struggling with difficult emotions and traumatic memories, you may be tempted to self-
medicate with alcohol or drugs. But while alcohol or drugs may temporarily make you feel better,
they make post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) worse in the long run. Substance use worsens
many symptoms of PTSD, including emotional numbing, social isolation, anger, and depression. It
also interferes with treatment and can add to problems at home and in your relationships.
PTSD self-help tip 3: Challenge your sense of helplessness
Overcoming your sense of helplessness is key to overcoming post-traumatic stress disorder
(PTSD). Trauma leaves you feeling powerless and vulnerable. It’s important to remind yourself that
you have strengths and coping skills that can get you through tough times.
One of the best ways to reclaim your sense of power is by helping others: volunteer your time, give
blood, reach out to a friend in need, or donate to your favorite charity. Taking positive action
directly challenges the sense of helplessness that is a common symptom of PTSD.
Positive ways of coping with PTSD:
Learn about trauma and PTSD
Join a PTSD support group
Practice relaxation techniques
Pursue outdoor activities
Confide in a person you trust
Spend time with positive people
Avoid alcohol and drugs
Enjoy the peace of nature
PTSD self-help tip 4: Spend time in nature
The Sierra Club in the United States offers wilderness expeditions for veterans who have served in
recent wars such as Iraq and Afghanistan. Anecdotal evidence suggests that pursuing outdoor
activities like hiking, camping, mountain biking, rock climbing, whitewater rafting, and skiing may
help veterans cope with PTSD symptoms and transition back into civilian life.
It’s not just veterans who can benefit from spending time outdoors. Anyone with post-traumatic
stress disorder can benefit from the relaxation, seclusion, and peace that come with being in the
natural world. Focusing on strenuous outdoor activities can also help challenge your sense of
helplessness and help your nervous system become “unstuck” and move on from the traumatic
event. Seek out local organizations that offer outdoor recreation or teambuilding opportunities.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the family
If a loved one has post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it’s essential that you take care of yourself
and get extra support. PTSD can take a heavy toll on the family if you let it. It can be hard to
understand why your loved one won’t open up to you—why he or she is less affectionate and more
volatile. The symptoms of PTSD can also result in job loss, substance abuse, and other stressful
Letting your family member’s PTSD dominate your life while ignoring your own needs is a surefire
recipe for burnout. In order to take care of your loved one, you first need to take care of yourself.
It’s also helpful to learn all you can about post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The more you
know about the symptoms and treatment options, the better equipped you'll be to help your loved
one and keep things in perspective.
Helping a loved one with PTSD
Be patient and understanding. Getting better takes time, even when a person is committed to
treatment for PTSD. Be patient with the pace of recovery and offer a sympathetic ear. A person
with PTSD may need to talk about the traumatic event over and over again. This is part of the
healing process, so avoid the temptation to tell your loved one to stop rehashing the past and
Try to anticipate and prepare for PTSD triggers. Common triggers include anniversary dates;
people or places associated with the trauma; and certain sights, sounds, or smells. If you are
aware of what triggers may cause an upsetting reaction, you’ll be in a better position to offer your
support and help your loved one calm down.
Don’t take the symptoms of PTSD personally. Common symptoms of post-traumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) include emotional numbness, anger, and withdrawal. If your loved one seems
distant, irritable, or closed off, remember that this may not have anything to do with you or your
Don’t pressure your loved one into talking. It is very difficult for people with PTSD to talk about
their traumatic experiences. For some, it can even make things worse. Never try to force your
loved one to open up. Let the person know, however, that you’re there when and if he or she
wants to talk.http://www.helpguide.org/articles/ptsd-trauma/post-traumatic-stress-disorder.htm